• Ph.D. Emory University
  • J.D. Northwestern University
  • B.A. Michigan State University


Born in Nashville and raised in New York City, I worked for two years as a public defender in Los Angeles before returning to graduate school and earning a Ph.D. in history. Since then, I've investigated and taught many aspects of American and African American history. I have written about the history of African American civil rights activism from the Civil War period to the present, and about African Americans' efforts to influence U.S. foreign policy in the 1930s and 1940s.

One of my published articles concerned the parallel efforts of the U.S. government and African American civic organizations during the 1940s to give the United Nations the power to regulate and terminate colonialism. I've also published articles concerning African American activists' opposition to United States entry into World War II, and I am the author of Becoming American: The African American Quest for Civil Rights, 1861-1976.


My teaching fields include American History, African American history, and Africana Studies.